Biomaterials are defined as materials that are used in medical devices or are in contact with biological systems. Their application can range from skeletal systems (bone implants, knee joints, dental implants etc), cardiovascular systems (stents, catheter, heart valve etc), organs (artificial kidney, heart lung machine, skin etc) and senses (contact lens, corneal bandage etc). The field of biomaterials uses ideas from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry, materials sciences, engineering, ethics, law and health care. Biomaterials are usually integrated into devices or implants hence the interdisciplinary aspect is important for progress. The field brings together researchers from diverse academic backgrounds. They must communicate clearly. Some disciplines that intersect in the development, study and application of biomaterials include: bioengineer, chemist, chemical engineer, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, materials scientist, biologist, microbiologist, physician, veterinarian, ethicist, nurse, lawyer, regulatory specialist and venture capitalist.
Studies of the DNA sequence are paving the ways to diagnose diseases at much early stages leading to possible cures of cancer. Presence of mutated genes could be considered a risk for undesired production of proteins resulting in diseases like cancer. This seminar will highlight the biology of the microarrays, different classification techniques to diagnose cancer and the necessary tools to increase the accuracy of diagnosis.
The merger of life-science and engineering, specially at the micro and nanoscale, can bring about some very exciting and practical possibilities for the development of “integrated systems”. Micro and nanoscale engineering can be used to solve important problems in life-sciences such as detection of biological organisms, while concepts from life sciences such as bio-inspired assembly can be used to meet significant engine manufacturing. Future integrated systems will utilize nano-scale phenomena,and micro-scale components used to interface the nano-scale components to the macro-world.
Advent of Recombinant DNA Technology has made it possible to detect defective genes and replace them with “good” genes. Consequently the genetic diseases, which result on mutations can now be cured. The first successful gene therapy experient was done on a 9 year old Indian girl Ashanti in 1990 in USA, who was suffering from a fatal immunological disease – SCID, which is caused by a mutation in ADA gene. The scientists introduced the the “good” copy of the gene in her body and were successful in curing her of this fatal disease. This encouraged other researchers and now several methods are being tried to cure genetic diseases.